Main Article Content
Objectives: To find the prevalence of fibromyalgia in patients with early knee osteoarthritis.
Methodology: In this observational cross-sectional study 115 patients (age 18-49) in which 65 females and 50 males were selected from the Department of Rheumatology, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar from August 2020 and February 2021. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria and American Classification Criteria 1986 were used for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia in early knee osteoarthritis.
Results: Mean age of the patients was 37.38 ± 9.14 years. There were 50 patients (females= 38, males = 12) who reported fibromyalgia. Moreover, there were 41 patients with hypertension, 3 with diabetes, and 1 with ischemic heart disease. Similarly, 3 patients reported hypothyroidism while 1 patient-reported chronic kidney disease. As regards fibromyalgia, 50 patients with early OA were found to have fibromyalgia comprising 43.5% of the total patients.
Conclusion: It is concluded that fibromyalgia is a commonly occurring disease among patients with early knee osteoarthritis. This condition affects both sexes, although females are far more likely to develop fibromyalgia as compared to males. The results of this study further highlighted the need for awareness, early diagnosis, and timely management of Fibromyalgia preventing patients from being over-treated for early knee OA.
Work published in JPMI is licensed under a
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
López PS, Garre OJ, De Gracia M, Ribot J, Calvó PL, Vilalta FJ. Development of a multidimensional measure of fibro¬myalgia symptomatology: The compre¬hensive rating scale for fibromyalgia symptomatology. J Psychosom Res. 2013;74(5):384-92. DOI:10.1016/j. jpsychores. 2012.12.018
López-Pousa S, Garre-Olmo J, de Gracia M, Ribot J, Calvó-Perxas L, Vilalta-Franch J. Development of a multidimensional measure of fibromy¬algia symptomatology: the compre¬hensive rating scale for fibromyalgia symptomatology. J Psychosom Res. 2013;74(5):384-92. DOI:10.1016/j. jpsychores. 2012.12.018
Wolfe F, Ross K, Anderson J, Russell IJ, Hebert L. The prevalence and charac¬teristics of fibromyalgia in the general population: Fibromyalgia Prevalence and Characteristics. Arthritis Rheum. 1995;38(1):19-28. DOI:10.1002/ art.1780380104
Buchwald D, Umali P, Umali J, Kith P, Pearlman T, Komaroff AL. Chron¬ic fatigue and the chronic fatigue syndrome: prevalence in a Pacif¬ic Northwest health care system. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123(2):81-8. DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-123-2- 199507150-00001
Pawlikowska T, Chalder T, Hirsch SR, Wallace P, Wright DJ, Wessely SC. Population based study of fatigue and psychological distress. BMJ. 1994;308(6931):763-6. DOI:10.1136/ bmj.308.6931.763
Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, Bennett RM, Bombardier C, Goldenberg DL, et al. The American college of rheumatolo¬gy 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia. Report of the multicenter criteria committee. Arthritis Rheum. 1990;33(2):160-72. DOI:10.1002/ art.1780330203
7. Branco JC, Bannwarth B, Failde I, Abel¬lo Carbonell J, Blotman F, Spaeth M, et al. Prevalence of fibromyalgia: a sur¬vey in five European countries. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2010;39(6):448-53. DOI:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2008.12.003
8. Guermazi M, Ghroubi S, Sellami M, El¬leuch M, Feki H, André E, et al. Fibromy¬algia prevalence in Tunisia. Tunis Med. 2008;86(9):806-11.
9. Offenbaecher M, Bondy B, de Jonge S, Glatzeder K, Krüger M, Schoeps P, et al. Possible association of fibromyalgia with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Ar¬thritis Rheum. 1999;42(11):2482-8. DOI:10.1002/1529-0131
10. Wolfe F, Cathey MA, Kleinheksel SM. Fi¬brositis (Fibromyalgia) in rheumatoid ar¬thritis. J Rheumatol. 1984;11(6):814-8.
11. Buskila D, Press J. Abu-Shakra M. Fibromyalgia in systemic lupus ery¬thematosus: prevalence and clinical implications. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2003; 25(1):25-8. DOI:10.1385/CRI¬AI:25:1:25
12. Thompson ME, Barkhuizen A. Hepatitis C infection, and the cytokine connec¬tion. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2003; 7:342-7. DOI:10.1007/s11916-003- 0032-2
13. Loeser RF, Goldring SR, Scanzello CR, Goldring MB. Osteoarthritis: a disease of the joint as an organ. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64(6):1697-707. DOI:10.1002/ art.34453
14. Mahgoub MY, Elnady BM, Abdelkader HS, Abdelhalem RA, Hassan WA. Erra¬tum: Comorbidity of fibromyalgia in pri¬mary knee osteoarthritis: Potential im¬pact on functional status and quality of life [corrigendum]. Open Access Rheu¬matol. 2020; 12:125-6. DOI:10.2147/ OARRR.S267971
Altman R, Asch E, Bloch D, Bole G, Borenstein D, Brandt K, et al. Devel¬opment of criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis: Clas¬sification of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum. 1986;29(8):1039-49. DOI:10.1002/art.1780290816
Blagojevic M, Jinks C, Jeffery A, Jordan KP. Risk factors for onset of osteoarthri¬tis of the knee in older adults: a system¬atic review and meta-analysis. Osteo¬arthritis Cartilage. 2010;18(1):24-33. DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2009.08.010
Forman MD, Malamet R, Kaplan D. A survey of osteoarthritis of the knee in the elderly. J Rheumatol. 1983;10(2):282- 7.
Felson DT, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, Naimark A, Weissman BN, Aliabadi P, et al. The incidence and natural histo¬ry of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. The Framingham Osteoarthritis Study Arthritis Rheum. 1995;38(10):1500-5. DOI:10.1002/art.1780381017
O’Connor MI. Osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: sex and gender differences. Orthop Clin North Am. 2006;37(4):559- 68. DOI:10.1016/j.ocl.2006.09. 004
Srikanth VK, Fryer JL, Zhai G, Winzenberg TM, Hosmer D, Jones G. A meta-analysis of sex differences prevalence, incidence and severity of osteoarthritis. Osteoar¬thritis Cartilage.2005;13(9):769-81. DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2005.04.014
Mcalindon TE, Cooper C, Kirwan JR, Dieppe PA. Knee pain and disability in the community. Rheumatology (Oxford). 1992;31(3):189-92. DOI:10.1093/ rheumatology/ 31.3.189
O’Connor MI. Sex differences in osteo¬arthritis of the hip and knee. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2007;15 (1) 1:22-5.
O’Connor MI, Hooten EG. Breakout ses¬sion: Gender disparities in knee osteo¬arthritis and TKA. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469(7):1883-5. DOI:10.1007/ s11999-010-1743-4
Thomas SG, Pagura SMC, Kennedy D. Physical activity and its relationship to physical performance in patients with end stage knee osteoarthritis. J Orthop Sports Physther. 2003;33(12):745-54. DOI:10.2519/jospt.2003.33.12.745
Haliloglu S, Carlioglu A, Akdeniz D, Karaaslan Y, Kosar A. Fibromyalgia in patients with other rheumatic dis¬eases: prevalence and relationship with disease activity. Rheumatol Int. 2014;34(9):1275-80. DOI:10.1007/ s00296-014-2972-8
Bergman S, Thorstensson C, Anders¬son MLE. Chronic widespread pain and its associations with quality of life and function at a 20- year follow-up of individuals with chronic knee pain at inclusion. BMC Musculoskelet Dis¬ord. 2019;20(1):592. DOI:10.1186/ s12891-019-2976-3
Dzekan OV, Stanislavchuk M. AB1067 Prevalence of fibromyalgia in patients with painful knee OA. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2018; 77:1644. DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-eu¬lar.7383