Main Article Content

Ume Kalsoom
Olfat Ara


Objective: To investigate adverse childhood experiences with depression and suicidal ideation among Pakistani adults.

Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, a convenient sampling method was used to collect information from 400 participants. In this study, both males and females (n=200) between the ages of 20 and 50 were considered. We recruited 400 people from Peshawar's drug recovery institutes and 400 people from other institutions (Paki­stan). Each person who agreed to take part received a booklet with demographic questions, the ACEs-IQ ( = 0.86), the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D, =0.76), and the Suicidal Behavior Risk-R (a=0.76) questionnaires.

Results: The dataset was examined using a t-test and a regression analysis. In this study, 44% of the subjects reported having traumatic events in their formative years. Moreover, a t-test reveals a significant difference be­tween ACEs patients and non-ACEs sufferers on depression (t= -18.27, P .001) and suicidal thoughts (t= -11.81, P .001). Regression analysis indicated a relationship between home dysfunction and depression and between household dysfunction and suicidal thoughts [F (3,175) = 12.439, P.001, R2.176].

Conclusion: The results of the study concluded that 44% of the participants experienced ACEs as children. Sig­nificant predictors of depression and suicidal thoughts include family dysfunction and emotional neglect. However, sexual abuse is underreported in the present investigation.

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Kalsoom U, Ara O. EFFECTS OF ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES ON DEPRESSION AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY. J Postgrad Med Inst [Internet]. 2022 Dec. 31 [cited 2023 Oct. 4];36(4):218-22. Available from: https://jpmi.org.pk/index.php/jpmi/article/view/3085
Original Article


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