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Muhammad Abdur Rahman Afridi
Umme Salma Rashid
Muhammad Kamran Hassan
Muhammad Fahim Afridi


Objective: To determine the endoscopic findings in liver cirrhosis patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

Methodology: A descriptive observational study of 152 patients, of either gender, having liver cirrhosis presenting with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding was conducted in the Department of Medicine, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar, from July 2020 to December 2020. Demographic details were noted and relevant investigations were carried out. After resuscitation and stabilization, all patients were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy by a consultant gastroenterologist to detect endoscopic lesions causing upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). SPSS version 21 was used for data entry and analysis; post-stratification chi-square (x2) with p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The mean age of 152 patients was 50.95±16.44 years, including 96 (63.2%) males and 56 (36.8%) females. Oesophageal varices were found in 133 (87.5%) patients, gastric varices in 41 (27%) and portal gastrop­athy in 57 (37.5%) patients. Non-variceal lesions included peptic ulcer disease in 21 (13.8%) patients and gastritis in 19 (12.5%) patients. Only 5 (3.3%) patients had normal endoscopic study. Oesophageal varices were more common in males (72% versus 28%; p=0.001) whereas, gastric varices were more common in female patients (56% versus 44%), which was statistically significant (p=0.003).

Conclusion: Portal hypertension related lesions were the most common underlying etiology in the study patients of liver cirrhosis, presenting with UGIB. The findings on endoscopy included oesophageal varices (87.5%), portal gastropathy (37.5%) and gastric varices (27%). Non-variceal lesions were peptic ulcer disease (13.8%) and gas­tritis (12.5%). Male gender had significant association with esophageal varices and female gender with gastric varices.

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Muhammad Abdur Rahman Afridi, Umme Salma Rashid, Hassan MK, Muhammad Fahim Afridi. ACUTE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING IN PATIENTS WITH CIRRHOSIS: ENDOSCOPIC FINDINGS. J Postgrad Med Inst [Internet]. 2023 Mar. 1 [cited 2024 Jul. 19];37(1):67-72. Available from:
Original Article


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