Main Article Content

Linta Haroon
Sayyeda Taskeen Zahra



The objective of this paper was to explore the mediating role of embitterment in the association of mental toughness and psychosocial reactions in COVID-19 sufferers.


The cross-sectional study was conducted at three government and private universities of Islamabad Pakistan chosen through random selection and comprised a purposive sample of 202 young adults of BS degree, between ages limit 18-25. The overall mean age was 20.4 years with a standard deviation of 1.47. Boys constituted 49% and girls constituted 51% of the total sample. Study sample included 17% participants that had been infected with COVID-19, 52% whose family member had been infected and 15% had experienced the death of a family member due to COVID-19, 12% fell into 2 of the categories while 4% experienced all three circumstances.


Results show that male participants scored higher on psycho-social reactions as compared to females. Findings revealed a significant positive relationship of embitterment with psychosocial reactions (B=.49, SE=.06, p < .001). Embitterment also has a negative relationship with mental toughness (B = - .42, SE= .06, p <.001)


COVID-19 sufferers faced psychological challenges along with health issues which led to extreme psychosocial reactions and feelings of embitterment, whereas mental toughness functioned as a protective factor.



Article Details

How to Cite
Haroon L, Zahra ST. MENTAL TOUGHNESS AND PSYCHO-SOCIAL REACTIONS IN COVID-19 SUFFERERS: A MEDIATING ROLE OF EMBITTERMENT. J Postgrad Med Inst [Internet]. 2024 Feb. 17 [cited 2024 Apr. 17];38(1):9-14. Available from:
Original Article
Author Biography

Sayyeda Taskeen Zahra, Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Management and Technology, Lahore - Pakistan




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