MENTAL TOUGHNESS AND PSYCHO-SOCIAL REACTIONS IN COVID-19 SUFFERERS: A MEDIATING ROLE OF EMBITTERMENT

Main Article Content

Linta Haroon
Sayyeda Taskeen Zahra

Abstract

Objective:


The objective of this paper was to explore the mediating role of embitterment in the association of mental toughness and psychosocial reactions in COVID-19 sufferers.


Methodology:


The cross-sectional study was conducted at three government and private universities of Islamabad Pakistan chosen through random selection and comprised a purposive sample of 202 young adults of BS degree, between ages limit 18-25. The overall mean age was 20.4 years with a standard deviation of 1.47. Boys constituted 49% and girls constituted 51% of the total sample. Study sample included 17% participants that had been infected with COVID-19, 52% whose family member had been infected and 15% had experienced the death of a family member due to COVID-19, 12% fell into 2 of the categories while 4% experienced all three circumstances.


Results:


Results show that male participants scored higher on psycho-social reactions as compared to females. Findings revealed a significant positive relationship of embitterment with psychosocial reactions (B=.49, SE=.06, p < .001). Embitterment also has a negative relationship with mental toughness (B = - .42, SE= .06, p <.001)


Conclusion:


COVID-19 sufferers faced psychological challenges along with health issues which led to extreme psychosocial reactions and feelings of embitterment, whereas mental toughness functioned as a protective factor.


 


 

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Haroon L, Zahra ST. MENTAL TOUGHNESS AND PSYCHO-SOCIAL REACTIONS IN COVID-19 SUFFERERS: A MEDIATING ROLE OF EMBITTERMENT. J Postgrad Med Inst [Internet]. 2024 Feb. 17 [cited 2024 Apr. 17];38(1):9-14. Available from: https://jpmi.org.pk/index.php/jpmi/article/view/3299
Section
Original Article
Author Biography

Sayyeda Taskeen Zahra, Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Management and Technology, Lahore - Pakistan

 

 

References

Velavan TP, Meyer CG. The COVID-19 epidemic. Trop Med Int Health. 2020; 25(3): 278–80. DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13383.

Mamun MA, Griffiths MD. First COVID-19 suicide case in Bangladesh due to fear of COVID-19 and xenophobia: Possible suicide prevention strategies. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020; 51: 102-273.DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102073.

Daniel SJ. Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects. 2020; 49: 91–6. DOI: 10.1007/s11125-020-09464-3.

Mumtaz, M. COVID-19 and mental health challenges in Pakistan. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2021; 67(3): 303–4. DOI: 10.1177/0020764020954487.

Zada S, Wang Y, Zada M, Gul F. Effect of mental health problems on academic performance among university students in Pakistan. Int J Ment Health Promot. 2021; 23: 395-408. DOI: 10.32604/IJMHP.2021.015903.

Saleem S, Mahmood Z. Risk and protective factors of emotional and behavioral problems in school children: A prevalence study. Pak J Psych Res. 2013; 28(2): 239–260.

Arnett JJ. Emerging adulthood: What is it, and what is it good for? Child Dev Perspect. 2007; 1(2): 68–73. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2007.00016.x.

Van de Velde S, Buffel V, Bracke P, Van Hal G, Somogyi NM, Willems B, et al. The COVID-19 international student well-being study. Scand J Public Health. 2021; 49(1): 114–22. DOI: 10.1177/1403494820981186.

Waris A, Atta UK, Ali M, Asmat A, Baset A. COVID-19 outbreak: Current scenario of Pakistan. New Microbes New Infec. 2020; 35. DOI: 10.1016/j.nmni.2020.100681.

Adnan M, Anwar K. Online learning amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: students' perspectives. J Pedagogical Soc Psy. 2020; 2(1): 45-51. DOI: 10.33902/JPSP.2020.261309.

Sahu P. Closure of universities due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Impact on education and mental health of students and academic staff. Cureus. 2020; 12(4). DOI: /10.7759/cureus.7541.

Khattak SR, Saeed I, Rehman SU Fayaz M. Impact of fear of COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of nurses in Pakistan. J Loss Trauma. 2021; 26(5): 421-435. DOI: 10.1080/15325024.2020.1814580.

Sun N, Wei L, Wang H, Wang X, Gao M, Hu X. Shi S. Qualitative study of the psychological experience of COVID-19 patients during hospitalization. J Affect Disord. 2020; 278: 15-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.08.040.

Koçak O, Koçak ÖE, Younis MZ. The psychological consequences of COVID-19 fear and the moderator effects of individuals’ underlying illness and witnessing infected friends and family. Int J Environ. 2021; 18(4): 18-36. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18041836.

Singer J, Spiegel JA, Papa A. Preloss grief in family members of COVID-19 patients: Recommendations for clinicians and researchers. Psychol Trauma. 2020; 12(1): S90–3. DOI: 10.1037/tra0000876.

Selman LE, Chao D, Sowden R, Marshall S, Chamberlain C, Koffman J. Bereavement support on the frontline of covid-19: recommendations for hospital clinicians. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2020; 60(2): 81-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.024.

Cherry K. Self-efficacy and why believing in yourself matters. Very Well Mind. 2020. Available from URL: https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-self-efficacy-2795954

Dodek A, Barnow S. Personality as risk and resilience in embitterment reactions. In Linden M., Maercker A. (Eds) Embitterment. 2011;83-84. Springer, Vienna. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-211-99741-3

Pooley J, Cohen, L. Resilience: A Definition in Context. Australian Community Psychologist. 2010; 22: 30-37.

Görmez A, Yeni ER, Karatepe HT. Post-traumatic embitterment symptoms among woman victims of February 28th post-modern coup of Turkey after two decades: A comparative cross-sectional study. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2021; 67(3): 269–6. DOI: 10.1177/0020764020946346

Tummala-Narra P. Conceptualizing trauma and resilience across diverse contexts. J Aggression Maltreat Trauma. 2007; 14(2): 33-53. DOI: 10.1300/J146v14n01_03.

Hipolito-Delgado CP, Cook JM, Avrus EM. and Bonham, E.J. Developing Counseling Students' Multicultural Competence Through the Multicultural Action Project. Couns Educ Superv. 2011; 50: 402-21. DOI: 10.1002/j.1556-6978.2011.tb01924.x.

Sohil F, Sohail MU, Shabbir J. COVID-19 in Pakistan: Challenges and priorities. Cogent Med. 2021; 8(1). DOI: 10.1080/2331205X.2021.1966179.

Jin L, Wang CDC. International students’ attachment and psychological well-being: the mediation role of mental toughness. Couns Psychol Q. 2018; 31(1): 59-78. DOI: 10.1080/09515070.2016.1211510.

Muschalla B, Vollborn C, Sondhof A. Embitterment as a specific mental health reaction during the coronavirus pandemic. Psychopath. 2021; 54(5): 232-41. DOI: 10.1159/00051744

Khaliq NA, Jabeen A, Sadia S, Mahmood Z. Attachment styles, embitterment and psychosocial issues in eczema patients: A bio-psychosocial comorbidity of a cancerous emotion. Rawal Med J. 2019; 44(3): 565-8.