SELENIUM IN HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASE: A REVIEW

Munaza Riaz, Khawaja Tahir Mehmood

Abstract


Selenium is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and selenium deficiency is associated withseveral disease conditions such as immune impairment. Free radicals are produced in the body as a resultof many biochemical processes in the body. All aerobic organisms possess antioxidant defense system tocombat oxidative stress. Selenium is an important constituent of antioxidant enzymes, especially,glutathione peroxidase and some other selenoproteins that participate in various physiological activitiesand protects the cell against the deleterious effects of free radicals by modulating the cell response.However, their exact role is still unknown. Moreover, many human diseases are related to the cell cycleregulation. Selenium intakes, greater than the recommended daily allowance (RDA), appear to protectagainst certain types of cancers by finding its role in regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Therole of selenium has been explored in normal thyroid functioning, enhancing immune function,carcinogenesis, cardiovascular diseases, in the prevention of pre-eclampsia, diabetes mellitus and male reproductionetc. This article reviews introductory aspects of selenium as an essential micronutrient, differentsources of selenium, Pharmacokinetics and its role in various pathologies and aims to provide an updateon selenium profile.

Keywords


Selenium, Selenoprotein, Glutathione peroxidase, Free Radicals, Antioxidant, Apoptosis

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