Main Article Content

Samia Rani
Sadia Saleem
Sayyeda Taskeen Zahra


Objective: The current study explores the mediating role of self-esteem in the relationship of extraversion and mental health problems in traumatized university students.

Methodology: For this purpose, from the list of 265 total 215 potential participants were selected for further steps, who marked the “happened to me” on Life Event Checklist 29. A sample of 215 university students (men = 31%; women = 69%) with the ages of 18 to 26 (M= 20.78; SD= 2.46). Self-Esteem Scale for University Stu­dents, Big Five Personality Inventory, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were used to assess the self-esteem, extraversion, and mental health problems of the participants.

Results: Results of correlation analysis indicated the positive association of extraversion and self-confidence (r =.136, p < .05*), anxious self-esteem and mental health problems (r = 541, p <.001***). Furthermore, results also suggested the negative association of extraversion and anxious self-esteem (r = 257, p < .001***), extraver­sion and mental health problems (r = 218, p < 05*), self-confidence and mental health problems (r = 138, p < .05*). However, low self-esteem, resilience, and sociability were not related with extraversion and mental health problems. Subsequently, mediation analysis indicated the significant mediating role of anxious self-esteem and self-confidence in the association of extraversion and mental health problems.

Conclusion: These findings indicated that boosting the self-esteem level of can ensure the psycho-social well-be­ing of traumatized university students.  

Article Details

How to Cite
Samia Rani, Sadia Saleem, Sayyeda Taskeen Zahra. THE MEDIATING ROLE OF SELF ESTEEM IN PERSONALITY AND MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS WITH TRAUMATIC EXPERIENCES. J Postgrad Med Inst [Internet]. 2023 May 22 [cited 2023 Jun. 7];37(2):135-9. Available from:
Original Article


Padmanabhanunni A. Trauma nation: Exposure to traumatic events among South African university students. J Community Psychol. 2020;48(6):1853- 62. DOI:10.1002/jcop.22377.

Caldwell BM, Ricciuti HN. Review of Child Development Research. Vol. 3: Child Development and Social Policy. 1973.

Cougle JR, Resnick H, Kilpatrick DG. PTSD, depression, and their comorbid¬ity in relation to suicidality: cross-sec¬tional and prospective analyses of a national probability sample of women. Depress Anxiety. 2009;26(12):1151–7. DOI:10.1002/da.20621.

Weathers FW, Litz BT, Keane TM, Palm¬ieri PA, Marx BP, Schnurr PP. The PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Scale available from the National Center for PTSD at www. ptsd. va. gov. 2013;10(4).

Leontjevas R, Knippenberg IAH, Smalbrugge M, Plouvier AOA, Teunisse S, Bakker C, et al. Challenging behav¬ior of nursing home residents during COVID-19 measures in the Netherlands. Aging Ment Health. 2021;25(7):1314- 19. DOI:10.1080/13607863.2020.18 57695.

Krause KR, Chung S, Adewuya AO, Al¬bano AM, Babins Wagner R, Birkinshaw L, et al. International consensus on a standard set of outcome measures for child and youth anxiety, depres¬sion, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Lancet Psychiatry. 2021;8(1):76-86. DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30356- 4.

Logan B, Burns S. Stressors among young Australian university students: A qualitative study. J Am Coll Health. 2021:1-8. DOI:10.1080/07448481.20 21.1947303.

Varese F, Smeets F, Drukker M, Liev¬erse R, Lataster T, Viechtbauer W, et al. Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: a meta-anal¬ysis of patient-control, prospective-and cross-sectional cohort studies. Schizophr Bull. 2012;38(4):661-71. DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbs050.

Mall S, Mortier P, Taljaard L, Roos J, Stein DJ, Lochner C. The relationship between childhood adversity, recent stressors, and depression in college students attending a South African uni¬versity. BMC Psychiatry. 2018;18(1):63. DOI:10.1186/s12888-017-1583-9.

Fadda D, Scalas LF, Quevedo-Aguado MP, Benavente Cuesta MH. The influ¬ence of personality factors on well-being through self-esteem: An Italian-Spanish lexical comparative study. Pers Indi¬vid Dif. 2021;175(110663):110663. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2021.110663.

Zlotnick C, Johnson J, Kohn R, Vicente B, Rioseco P, Saldivia S. Epidemiology of trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and co-morbid disorders in Chile. Psychol Med. 2006;36(11):1523-33. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291706008282.

Zhou X, Song H, Hu M, Li X, Cai Y, Huang G, et al. Risk factors of severity of post-traumatic stress disorder among survivors with physical disabilities one year after the Wenchuan earthquake. Psychiatry Res. 2015;228(3):468-74. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.062.

Usami M, Iwadare Y, Watanabe K, Ko¬daira M, Ushijima H, Tanaka T, et al. Decrease in the traumatic symptoms observed in child survivors with¬in three years of the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami. PLoS One. 2014;9(10):e110898. DOI:10.1371/ journal.pone.0110898.

Holeva V, Tarrier N. Personality and peritraumatic dissociation in the pre¬diction of PTSD in victims of road traffic accidents. J Psychosom Res. 2001;51(5):687-92. DOI:10.1016/ s0022-3999(01)00256-2.

McMillan KA, Asmundson GJG, Sareen J. Comorbid PTSD and Social Anxiety Dis¬order: Associations With Quality of Life and Suicide Attempts. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2017;205(9):732-37. DOI:10.1097/ NMD.0000000000000704.

Hong C, Efferth T. Systematic Re¬view on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Survivors of the Wenchuan Earthquake. Trauma Vio¬lence Abuse. 2016;17(5):542-561. DOI:10.1177/1524838015585313.

Ding Y, Wu J, Ji T. I deserve better out¬comes: Self-esteem relates to stronger reactions to unfairness. Pers Indiv¬id Dif. 2022;190(111533):111533. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2022.111533.

Tao Tao LL. Mediating Effect of Spiritual Attitude and Involvement on the Rela¬tionship Between Self-Esteem and Psy¬chological Well-Being Among LET Ex¬aminees. Nazhruna: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam. 2022;5(1):1-1.

Chen SS, He Y, Xie GD, Chen LR, Zhang TT, Yuan MY, et al. Relationships among adverse childhood experience patterns, psychological resilience, self-esteem and depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents: A serial multiple mediation model. Prev Med. 2022;154:106902. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106902.

Hayes AF. Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford publications. 2017.

Dolz Del Castellar B, Oliver J. Relation¬ship between family functioning, differ¬entiation of self and anxiety in Spanish young adults. PLoS One. 2021 Mar 3;16(3):e0246875. DOI:10.1371/jour¬nal.pone.0246875.

Ainsworth MS. Infant–mother attach¬ment. Am Psychol. 1979;34(10):932–7. DOI:10.1037/0003-066x.34.10.932.

Bowlby J. Attachment and loss: Volume II: Separation, anxiety and anger. InAt¬tachment and loss: Volume II: Separa¬tion, anxiety and anger 1973. In: Lon¬don: The Hogarth press and the institute of psycho-analysis. p. 1–429.

Zahra ST, Saleem S, Subhan S, Mah¬mood Z. Interpersonal skills scale: Development and validation in urban¬ized sample of adolescents. Soc Dev. 2021;30(1):23–37. DOI:10.1111/ sode.12475.

Weathers FW, Blake DD, Schnurr PP, Kaloupek DG, Marx BP, Keane TM. The life events checklist for DSM-5 (LEC-5). Instrument available from the National Center for PTSD. 2013;6:2021.

Zafar N, Saleem S, Mahmood Z. The development of a Self-esteem Scale for University Students. FWU J Soc Sci. 2012;6(1):26.

John OP, Donahue EM, Kentle RL. Big five inventory. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1991.

Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF. Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales. Psychology Foundation of Australia. 1996.