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Visceral Leishmaniasis is a disease which, we thought, was a very rare diseases in our country, but since we have isolated three cases of the same disease in Children "˜B' unit of PGMI / LRH, Peshawar within one month time, it may be said that it is a disease not very uncommon in our country. The cases which we isolated were all from the same area. Bone marrow aspirates were positive in all cases. We did not do the lymph node and liver biopsy and the splenic puncture. The last two are comparatively dangerous procedures in particular the splenic puncture, which can cause table death in inexperienced hands. One of the patient did well without receiving any treatment in the form of antimony compounds, left the hospital against the medical advise and come back after 6 weeks for follow up with almost complete disappearance of signs and symptoms (fever, anaemia, anorexia, regression in the size of spleen and liver). The other two received Glucantime in a dose of 10 mg/kg/24 hrs once a day for 10 days and showed marked clinical improvement.
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