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deregulation as predictors of depression in pre/post patients of general
Methodology: The study was conducted in public sector hospitals of Lahore.
Sample comprised of 300 indoor patients (120 men & 180 women) admitted
for general surgeries. The current study used within-subject research design as
the patients were assessed before surgery and again the same patients were
assessed after surgery. Age of the sample was from 30 to 65 years. Cognitive
failure scale was used for cognitive deficits, emotional deregulation scale for assessing
emotional disturbances and PHQ-9 (patient health questionnaire) was
used for measuring depression in included patients.
Results: In pre-assessment, the mean scores of cognitive deficits, emotional
deregulation and depressive symptoms were higher as compared to post-surgery
assessments (p<0.001). Mean scores of women were higher than men
(p <0.001). Middle aged patients (30-45 years) had higher mean scores on all
study variables than older-aged (46-65 years) patients (p <.001). Results revealed
that middle-aged patients, being women, monthly income, cognitive
deficits and emotional deregulation emerged as significant predictors of depression
Conclusion: Women and middle aged patients suffer from more cognitive deficits,
emotional deregulation and depressive symptoms. Assessment before surgery
revealed more cognitive deficits, emotional deregulation and depressive
symptoms in patients of general surgery as compared to the assessments done
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